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Saturday, February 20, 2016

Origin and evolution of the word jew


Origin and evolution of the word JEW
Middle English, from Anglo-French ju, jeu, from Latin Judaeus, from Greek Ioudaios, from Hebrew Yĕhūdhī, from Yĕhūdhāh Judah, Jewish kingdom

First Known Use: 13th century
http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Jew

1125- 1175; Middle English jewe, giu, gyu, ju < OldFrench juiu, juieu, gyu < Late Latin judēus, Latinjūdaeus < Greek ioudaîos < Aramaic yehūdāi < Hebrew Yəhūdhī, derivative of Yəhūdhāh Judah; replacing Old English iūdēas Jews < Late Latin jūdē(us) + Old English -as plural ending
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/jew

In the 5th century BCE, the Kingdom of Israel was conquered by Assyrian King Sennaherib, and the ten tribes were exiled and lost. The only remaining Israelites were the residents of the Kingdom of Judah, and the term "Yehudi" or "Jew" came to refer to all the Israelites, regardless of their tribal ancestry.

But there is also a deeper meaning to the name "Jew. The first individual to be called a Jew (Yehudi) in the Scriptures was Mordecai, of Purim fame. "There was a man, a Yehudi, in Shushan the capital, whose name was Mordecai . . . a Yemini" (Esther 2:5). The Talmud (Tractate Megillah 12b) asks on this: "He is called a Yehudi, implying that he descended from Judah; he then is called Yemini, implying that he is a Benjaminite!" Rabbi Jochanan responds: "He was a Benjaminite. Yet he was called a Yehudi because he rejected idolatry--and anyone who rejects idolatry is called a Yehudi."
http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/640221/jewish/What-is-the-Meaning-of-the-Name-Jew.htm

History of God's Holy Bible and the so-called Jews
The Etymology of the Word "Jew"

In his classic Facts are Facts, Jewish historian, researcher and scholar Benjamin Freedman writes:

Jesus is referred as a so-called "Jew" for the first time in the New Testament in the 18th century. Jesus is first referred to as a so-called "Jew" in the revised 18th century editions in the English language of the 14th century first translations of the New Testament into English. The history of the origin of the word "Jew" in the English language leaves no doubt that the 18th century "Jew" is the 18th century contracted and corrupted English word for the 4th century Latin "Iudaeus" found in St. Jerome's Vulgate Edition. Of that there is no longer doubt.

The available original manuscripts from the 4th century to the 18th century accurately trace the origin and give the complete history of the word "Jew" in the English language. In these manuscripts are to be found all the many earlier English equivalents extending through the 14 centuries from the 4th to the 18th century. From the Latin "Iudaeus" to the English "Jew" these English forms included successively: "Gyu," "Giu," "Iu," "Iuu," "Iuw," "Ieuu," "Ieuy," "Iwe," "Iow," "Iewe," "Ieue," "Iue," "Ive," "Iew," and then finally the 18th century, "Jew." The many earlier English equivalents for "Jews" through the 14 centuries are "Giwis," "Giws," "Gyues," "Gywes," "Giwes," "Geus," "Iuys," "Iows," "Iouis," "Iews," and then also finally in the 18th century, "Jews."

With the rapidly expanding use in England in the 18th century for the first time in history of the greatly improved printing presses, unlimited quantities of the New Testament were printed. These revised 18th century editions of the earlier 14th century first translations into the English language were then widely distributed throughout England and the English speaking world among families who had never possessed a copy of the New Testament in any language. In these 18th century editions with revisions the word "Jew" appeared for the first time in any English translations.

The word "Jew" as it was used in the 18th century editions has since continued in use in all the editions of the New Testament in the English language. The use of the word "Jew" was thus stabilized. . .

The best known 18th century editions of the New Testament in English are the Rheims (Douai) Edition and the King James Authorized Edition. The Rheims (Douai) translation of the New Testament into English was first printed in 1582 but the word "Jew" did not appear in it.

The King James Authorized translation of the New Testament into English was begun in 1604 and first published in 1611. The word "Jew" did not appear in it either. The word "Jew" appeared in both these well known editions in their 18th century revised versions for the first times.

ORIGEN OF THE WORD JEW
"Strictly speaking, it is incorrect to call an ancient Israelite a "Jew" or to call a contemporary Jew an "Israelite" or a "Hebrew." The first Hebrews may not have been Jews at all," The Jewish Almanac (1980)
________________________________________
Many people suffer under the misapprehension that Jesus was a "Jew," moreover, that he was “King of the Jews." Thus, by inference, that the "Jews" were the "Chosen People" of the Holy Bible and so ancient possessors and modern inheritors of the Bible Covenants gifted by Yahweh to their forebears Abraham, Jacob and Judah. However, this is not the case. In fact, during Christ's Mission and Passion no such people existed called "Jews" nor indeed did the word “Jew.” In short: Jesus was NOT a "Jew" nor was he “King of the Jews."



ORIGIN OF THE WORD JEW
Near the time of Christ, there once existed a metropolis city, which was a trade center for the then known world. This city of wealth was once destroyed in 146 B.C., and its treasures carried off to Rome. But Julius Caesar restored it a hundred years later, and the Roman colony flourished so much that it soon became one of the most prominent centers in Greece. Some would say that in the 2nd century it was the richest city in Greece.

This city was a city of wealth, of luxury and of immorality. It seemed to have one quality that marked it as a commercial hot spot of its day, for it is said that "Jews flocked to it." That city was ancient Corinth, the chief city in the Roman Province of Achaia. This is the city that Paul spent at least a year and one-half preaching the Gospel and encountering the full force and fury of the "Jews."

Times do not seem to change much do they? The same problem is facing most of the major cities in America today. The commercial cities we have in the United States are fast becoming breeding cesspools of corruption and all manner of evil. Could this be caused by a "Jewish" society and their influence? Many wonder!

Strong's Concordance more or less defines the words "Jew" and "Jews" as: "in the sense of a country, i.e., a Judean." The word "Jew" is used 22 times in the King James Version of the Bible in the New Testament, and the word "Jews" is used 172 times and 170 times of those are from the same #2453 as the above "Jew" definition. There are another 6 times the plural word "Jews'" is used and all but one of these is this #2454. So for the 200 times, the words: "Jew, Jews, and Jews'" are used in the New Testament, at least 197 occasions are referring to a Judean in the sense of from a place, i.e., as from a country.

The question still haunts many and they have often asked, just who are these people the Bible calls "Jews”? Why were these people not just simply called "Judeans," "Israelites," or "Judeans whose religion was Judaism?

This is the age old word problem of society problem that is surrounded with so many, many, lies and deceptions. "THE FEAR OF THE JEWS" syndrome that plagues society today.

Much of it as a result of the so-called holocaust which we have been told 10,000 times 10,000 that the Germans cremated 6-million Jews during WWII. This story has installed a guilt complex in the American people, until the word Jew has become a non-speakable word, and if one dares to utter the word except in reverence and humility they will be attacked by both Jews and Christians.

Therefore, we have prepared this study to prove to you and any other thinking American that the bulk of these people called "Jew" or "Jews" in the Bible, were not and are not of the House of Israel or of the House of Judah.

Then who are these people who have plagued the pages of history for so, so very long? The International Standard Bible Encyclopedia defines "Jew" as the same word of Strong's #2453 in the following words: "'Jew' denotes originally an inhabitant of Judah, (2 Kings 16:6 applies to the two tribes of the Southern Kingdom) but later the meaning was extended to embrace all descendants of Abraham." (James Orr, Volume III, page 1675)

The question which faces us here is WHO had the authority and the power that: "extended the meaning to embrace all descendants of Abraham?" Mr. Orr goes on to say in his definition that: "'Jews' (always pl.) is the familiar term for Israelites in the Gospel (esp. in John), Acts, Eph. etc."

This definition only serves to confuse the issue even more, who, how, when and why was such confusion entered into society and the Holy Scriptures? Why, if the term "Jew," refers to Israelites, did they not just simply call them Israelites or Judeans, whose religion was Hebrew?

It is an incontestible fact that the word "Jew" did not come into existence until the year 1775. Prior to 1775 the word "Jew" did not exist in any language on earth. The word "Jew" was introduced into the English language for the first time in the 18th century when Sheridan used it in his play "The Rivals," Chapter 2, p. 1, "She shall have a skin like a mummy, and the beard of a Jew." Prior to this use of the word "Jew" the word "Jew" had not become a word.

Contrary to what most people believe Shakespeare never saw the word "Jew" nor did he ever use the word "Jew" in any of his works, the common general belief to the contrary notwithstanding. In his "Merchant of Venice," V, III, I, 61, Shakespeare wrote as follows "what is the reason? I am a Iewe; hath not a Iewe eyes?" You see there was not even a letter "j" or "J" until the middle of the 18th century. Check any encyclopedia you wish for proof of this.

In the Latin Jerome 4th century Vulgate Edition of the New Testament Jesus is referred to by the Genitive Plural of "Iudaeus" in the Gospel by John reference to the inscription on the Cross, "Iudaeorum." It was in the 4th century that Jerome translated into Latin the manuscripts of the New Testament from the original languages in which they were written.

This translation by Jerome is referred to still today, as the Vulgate Edition by the Roman Catholic Church authorities, who use it today. Jesus is referred to as a so-called "Jew" for the first time in the New Testament in the 18th century editions in the English language of the 14th century first translations of the New Testament into English.

The history of the origin of the word "Jew" in the English language leaves no doubt that the 18th century "Jew" is the 18th century contracted and corrupted English word for the 4th century Latin "Iudaeus" found in Jerome's Vulgate Edition. Of that there is no longer any doubt.

The available original manuscripts from the 4th century to the 18th century accurately trace the origin and give the complete history of the word "Jew" in the English language. In these manuscripts are to be found all the many earlier English equivalents extending through the 14 centuries from the 4th to the 18th century.

From the Latin "Iudaeus" to the English "Jew" these English forms included successively: "Gyu," "Giu," "Iu," "Iuu," "Iuw," "Ieuu," "Ieuy," "Iwe," "Iow," "Iewe," "Ieue," "Iue," "Ive," "Iew," and then finally the 18th century, "Jew." The many earlier English equivalents for "Jews" through the 14 centuries are "Giwis," "Giws," "Gyues," "Gywes," "Giwes," "Geus," "Iuys," "Iows," "Iouis," "Iews," and then also finally in the 18th century, "Jews."

With the rapidly expanding use in England in the 18th century for the first time in history of the greatly improved printing presses unlimited quantities of the New Testament were printed. These revised 18th century editions of the earlier 14th century first translations into the English language were then widely distributed throughout England the English speaking world among families who had never possessed a copy of the New Testament in any language.

In these 18th century editions with revisions the word "Jew" appeared for the first time in any English translations. The word "Jew" as it was used in the 18th century editions has since continued in use in all the editions of the New Testament in the English language. The use of the word "Jew" was thus stabilized.

The best known 18th century editions of the New Testament in English are the Rheims (Douai) Edition and the King James Authorized Edition. The Rheims (Douai) translation of the New Testament into English was first printed in 1582 but the word "Jew" DID NOT APPEAR IN IT.

The King James Authorized translation of the New Testament into English was begun in 1604 and first published in 1611. The word "Jew" did not appear in it either. The word "Jew" appeared in both these well known editions in their 18th century revised versions for the first times.

Countless copies of the revised 18th century editions of the Rheims (Douai) and the King James translations of the New Testament into English were distributed to the clergy and the laity throughout the English speaking world. They did not know the history of the origin of the English word "Jew" nor did they care. They accepted the English word "Jew" as the only and as the accepted form of the Latin "Iudaeus" and the Greek "Ioudaios." How could they be expected to have known otherwise? The answer is they could not and they did not. It was a NEW English word to them.

When one studies Latin they are taught that the letter "I" in Latin when used as the first letter in a word is pronounced like the letter "Y" in English when it is the first letter in the words like "yes," "youth" and "yacht." The "I" in "Iudaeus" is pronounced like the "Y" in "yes," "youth," and "yacht" in English. In all the 4th century to 18th century forms for the 18th  century "Jew" the letter "I" was pronounced like the English "Y" in "yes," "young," and "yacht." The same is true of the "Gi" or the "Gy" when it was used in the place of the letter "I."

The present pronunciation of the word "Jew" in modern English is a development of recent times. In the English language today the "J" in "Jew" is pronounced like the "J" in the English "justice," "jolly," and "jump."

This is the case only since the 18th century. Prior to the 18th century the "J" in "Jew" was pronounced exactly like the "Y" in the English "yes," "youth," and "yacht." Until the 18th  century and perhaps even later than the 18th century the word "Jew" in English was pronounced like the English "you" or "hew," and the word "Jews" like "youse" or "hews." The present pronunciation of "Jew" in English is a new pronunciation acquired after the 18th century.

The German language still retains the Latin original pronunciation. The German "Jude" is the German equivalent of the English "Jew." The "J" in the German "Jude" is pronounced exactly like the English "Y" in "yes," "youth," and "yacht." The German "J" is the equivalent of the Latin "I" and both are pronounced exactly like the English "Y" in "yes," "youth," and "yacht."

The German "Jude" is virtually the first syllable of the Latin "Iudaeus" and is pronounced exactly like it. The German "Jude" is the German contraction and corruption of the Latin "Iudaeus" just as the English "Jew" is the contraction and corruption of the Latin "Iudaeus." The German "J" is always pronounced like the English "Y" in "yes," "youth," and "yacht" when it is the first letter of a word. The pronunciation of the "J" in German "Jude" is not an exception to the ronunciation of the "J" in German.

The earliest version of the New Testament in English from the Latin Vulgate Edition is the Wiclif, or Wickliff Edition published in 1380. In the Wiclif Edition Jesus is there mentioned as One of the "iewes." That was the 14th century English version of the Latin "Iudaeus" and was pronounced "hew-weeze," in the plural, and "iewe" pronounced "hew-wee" in the singular.

In the 1380 Wiclif Edition in English the Gospel by John XIX.19, reads "ihesus of Nazareth kyng of the iewes." Prior to the 14th century the English language adopted the Anglo-Saxon "kyng" together with many other Anglo-Saxon words in place of the Latin "rex" and the Greek "basileus." The Anglo-Saxon also meant "tribal leader."

In the Tyndale Edition of the New Testament in English published in 1525 Jesus was likewise described as One of the "Iewes."

In the Coverdale Edition published in 1535 Jesus was also described as One of the "Iewes." Also in the Coverdale Edition the Gospel by John, XIX.19, reads "Iesus of Nazareth, kynge of the Iewes." In the Cranner Edition published in 1539 Jesus was again described as One of the "Iewes."

In the Geneva Edition published in 1540-1557 Jesus was also described as One of the "Iewes." In the Rheims Edition published in 1582 Jesus was described as One of the "Ievves."

In the King James Edition published in 1604-1611 also known as the Authorized Version Jesus was described again as one of the "Iewes." The forms of the Latin "Iudaeus" were used which were current at the time these translations were made.

The translation into English of the Gospel by John, XIX.19, from the Greek in which it was originally written reads "Do not inscribe 'the monarch of the Judeans' but that He Himself said 'I am monarch.'"

In the original Greek manuscript the Greek "basileus" appears for "monarch" in the English and the Greek "Ioudaios" appears for "Judeans" in the English. "Ioudaia" in Greek is "Judea" in English. "Ioudaios" in Greek is "Judeans" in English. There is no reason for any confusion.

If the generally accepted understanding today of the English "Jew" and "Judean" conveyed the identical implications, inferences and innuendoes as both rightly should, it would make no difference which of these two words was used when referring to Jesus in the New Testament or elsewhere. But the implications, inferences, and innuendoes today conveyed by these two words are as different as black is from white. The word "Jew" today is never regarded as a synonym for "Judean" nor is "Judean" regarded as a synonym for "Jew."

When the word "Jew" was first introduced into the English language in the 18th century its one and only implication, inference and innuendo was "Judean."
However during the 18th, 19th and 20th centuries a well-organized and well-financed international "pressure group" created a so-called "secondary meaning" for the word "Jew" among the English speaking peoples of the world. This so-called "secondary meaning" for the word "Jew" bears no relation whatsoever to the 18th century original connotation of the word "Jew."

It is a misrepresentation presented to the world deliberately by this well organized and well financed "pressure group" to deceive Christians. (Facts Are Facts, by Benjamin H. Freedman, pp. 15-20) (And to claim a heritage that is not theirs). This sure seems to be the more correct terminology. It appears from all our readings that the Jews of all ages, always do best what their father, the devil does - and that is lie. (John 8:44)

Some Misconceptions About The Word "Jew"
The term "Jew' originated in the late eighteenth century as an abbreviation of the term Judean and refers to a resident of Judea without regard to race or religion. People now refered to as"Jews", were known as "Pharisees". "Judaism" today and "Pharisaism" in the time of Jesus are the same.

________________________________________

Benjamin H. Freedman, Jewish Historian - Researcher - Scholar.
We know that Saul was the first king of Israel and that John was the first man called Baptist, but who was the first Jew? Neither Adam, Seth or Noah are called Jew. Nor were Abraham, Isaac or Jacob. Moses was not called a Jew and neither were Saul, David or Solomon called Jew. In fact you will not find the word Jew in the first eleven books of the Bible. The first time Jews are mentioned in the Bible, is in 2nd Kings 16:6 (and then only in translations revised in the eighteenth century) where we find Israel was at war with the Jews and drove the Jews from Elath. Isn’t it interesting that we can read over five hundred pages of the Bible before we find a Jew anywhere.

We know that God changed the name of Abram to Abraham, Gen. 17:5 and that God changed the name of Jacob to Israel Gen. 32:28, but no where in the Bible do we find where God changed the name of Israel to Jew! There is therefore no authority by which those who say they are Jews can claim to be Israel!

By the time of Jesus the word Edom or Edomite had been translated by Greek and Latin into Ioudaios and Iudaeus meaning a Judean or person living in Judea. The original King James version of the Bible, 1611, translated Idumaean-Judean into Iewes. It wasn’t until the revised editions of the King James Bible, that the word Jew appeared. The word Jew does not mean Israel or Israelite! We must conclude therefore that the first "Jews" were Canaanite-Edomite-Hittite. It is certain, according to the Bible, that Jews are not Israel.
Benjamin H. Freedman, Jewish Historian - Researcher - Scholar.
From "Common Sense", p. 2-1-53 and 5-1-59



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